The oldest continuous human civilizations ( Indian civilization )

The oldest continuous human civilizations( Indian civilization ) 

Throughout history human peoples have passed through many civilizations.

These civilizations differed from each other in a lot of things.

Civilization is a social system. The person helps in increasing his cultural production.

Civilization arises from four elements. Different in nature from one people to another

Each civilization is affected by the following four elements:

1 - Political systems

2 - Traditions

3 - Economic resources

4- Progress in the sciences and arts

For these reasons, we find a difference in the nature of each civilization, for example:

The Indian civilization differs from the Roman civilization, and the Greek civilization differs from the Egyptian civilization

The Bengal civilization differs from the Greek civilization. And different from the civilization of Japan

One of the oldest civilizations that has passed on to humankind is the Indian civilization.

The civilization of India is that the
proverbial oldest and model of civilization and one monolith altogether eras of
history . The civilizations that accompanied her disappeared et al. came within
the same place . For , for instance , ended with civilization Sumerian in 2006
BC . M, and therefore the Egyptian civilization led to 322 BC . M, and
therefore the Assyrian civilization led to 611 S . M, the civilization of Babylonians
539 BC. M, and civilization Persian in 638 BC. M, and Romanian civilization in 476 m ... etc.

India is one of the civilizations that is still going on. And this is despite exposure to many problems and conflicts throughout history, but despite that it is still going on

India’s civilization differs from other
civilizations in its distinction in scientific and religious aspects at the
same time, and this civilization is considered a rich civilization in artistic
and cultural terms. Indian scientists excelled and excelled in mathematics and
medicine, and provided rare craftsmanship that we do not find in other peoples
and civilizations, as well as the various religious beliefs that had the merit
in the growth and mental development, and the distinct distinction in the
Indian civilization.

Geography of India 

India's borders extend from: the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea and Pakistan to the west, and its eastern borders are the Bay of Bengal, Myanmar and Bangladesh, and the Republic of China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north.

The area of ​​India: 3,287,490 square kilometers. The population, according to the latest statistics in 2018, is one billion and 340 million people. The country of India is located north of the equator between 6.44 and 97.25.

The Indian civilization is similar to the ancient Sindhi civilization and the Iraqi civilization and the Egyptian civilization.

Indian civilization has astonished scholars and explorers throughout history

Theories of the origin of the Indians 

The most important ancient races of India are the Dervidians and Arens. And they are considered the basis of the Indus civilization. As the Indus civilization is considered the first ancient Indian civilization contemporary to other ancient civilizations such as Sumerian and Egyptian civilization, and it arose like other civilizations on the banks of the Nile, as the Indian civilization arose on the banks of the Indus River

A brief history of India 

- The first civilization did not appear in all
parts of India, but only in the Indus Civilization  , and the culture of this civilization is
called ( Arriba culture )  its name from
the city ( Arriba ) located in the Indus Civilization  , in present-day Pakistan ; and it is  called the Indus Civilization  or the Sindhi civilization .

- says John Marshall, a reference recognized by the civilization of the valley of Sindh, and the supervisor of the excavations extended to the city Mohnju - Daro Mohengo Daro( City archaeological located on the West Bank of the River Indus ): « that both of art and religion in the valley of Sindh was characterized by the nature of a special and unique not there is an instance of him only in this valley » . 

- there from see that the beginning of civilization in the valley of Sindh was motivated civilization of the valley of Mesopotamia, and in particular in the field of writing and construction and trade . 

This is likely due to lead civilization of the civilization of the valley of Mesopotamia in time; and supports the continuing flight business between them on the extent of history the old . 

- Previously, I think some historians that the Roma have arrived from the land of Mesopotamia, and I suppose others they are from Egypt or North Africa or Ethiopia . But recent research suggests that the original homeland of the Roma is India . It is likely the author they are of the peoples of the valley of Sindh, and be of Aldravidiin who are the population native to India; has migrated some of them to South India after the invasion of Aryan country . 

- On the Vedic ( Hindu ) stage , the author says that there are two opinions : The first says that there was an immigration or Aryan ( Indo-European ) invasion that destroyed the Sindhi Dravid civilization and took its gains and developed according to its Aryan composition , and produced the Vedic culture , which is the core and foundation of the Hindu civilization ; and the second denies the existence of migration or invasion of Ari, is that the presence of Aryans naturally in within the continent of India and they continued to complete the civilization Sindhi 

- After a century of the emergence of Islam , the Muhammad al - Qasim invaded the country of Sindh, and became his capital there are called B ( Mansoura ) , which is far from Haider Abad current by 72 kilometers . Then the Indians defeated the Arabs in the battle of Rajasthan; and they established a group of Islamic kingdoms ( sultans ) in Pakistan and Afghanistan, which were active commercially and religiously . 

- The Empire of the Sikhs (1799 - 1849) led by ( Maharaja Raiz Singh ) , who founded the state of secular about Punjab . Has expanded and reached a peak in the century , the nineteenth century, from the passage of Khyber west and even Kashmir to the north, and from Sindh in the south and even Tibet West in the West . 

- in the stage of colonization of the European India (1497 - 1499) , the Portuguese Vascoda Gama between years (1497 - 1499) discovered the way the maritime new , which reaches Europe , India, which is the cradle of trade Indian - European is directly, and became in ( Goa ) and ( Widmann ) and ( Duo ) and ( Bombay ) , the most important rules of exchange trade of Portugal until the year 1961 , when captured India on the centers of exchange this . As for the Dutch, they have established a trading center for them in Ceylon, and the British in the western coast port of ( Swart ) , and so did the French . It has paved the way these activities commercial influence political these countries European gradually . 

- got company India East British in 1617 on a statement from the Emperor Mughal ( Jahangir ) trade in India . Led influence growing emperor Mughal ( Farouk Sayar ) to give them permits to trade free in Bengal in the year 1717. 

- after far surpassed the company 's British in its harsh, economically and politically, the soldiers Indians who employed by the company in the north and central India revolution against the company and management . Have deprived the Indians what they are benefiting from it from the wealth of their country , which accounted for the company is terrible . It has got this revolution in the year 1857. 

- emerged nationalism Hindi, meaning political new, in the century nineteenth ten after entering the operations of modernization and reform, and a sense of Indians need to rule their country and invest their property . It has led the conflict armed with the British role important in the vigilance of the national Indian . 

- emerged from the leaders of the national Indian « Mahatma Gandhi » , which emerged from the womb of the tide of reform and moderation, and found that the best solution is using the means of peaceful and not violence and war . Among these methods are demonstrations, civil disobedience , and economic resistance . His movement achieved important results , including the Indian Government Act in 1935 ; and the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. 

System of governance in India 

It includes systems of governance and system administration . The systems of governance and administration in India have varied in different forms, which have gathered most of the political systems of governance in the world. The most important of them are as follows : 

A - Small city states : which were formed in the Sindhi civilization first and established sophisticated cities in all areas . 

B - System Royal : where he appeared kingdoms since the settlement of Aryan, and was characterized by the character before me, was for each tribe , a large kingdom special . 

C - the imperial system : where the kingdoms expanded and included some to form empires, such as Mauritanian , Jute , and others . 

D - The republican system : which appeared in India early, but it was a simple system in which the states became independent from each other and had influential rulers . It has emerged in Nepal old some republics early, such as the Republic of Ekshevi ( licchavi) In Vachala, Republic of Sakya ( Sakya( In Cavalavasto, the Republic of Vidya ) Videha) In Mattila . 

The raised system of the Republic of modern in India in the year 1947 ; a system of a parliamentary federation consisting in which India from 26 the state . The governments federal duties of Chairperson are : defense, relations foreign, tax, and registration of births and deaths, and the development of plans for economic and industrial . 

India 's economy 

The economy of the civilization of the valley of Sindh was inclined to to be commercially if so knew their progress in engineering irrigation and transportation . It supports the effects of the idea of the expansion of trade and the Valley of Sindh with countries neighboring , such as Persia and the countries of the Valley of Mesopotamia and Egypt . 

And came agriculture , mainly the second of the economy of Sindh, was confirming the cultivation of wheat , peas , barley , sesame , dates and watermelon . 

The enable the people of the valley of Sindh from the conversion of cotton, for the first time, to wear around the year 2000 before Christmas, where they spin fabric and converted to canvas; which is active their trade internal and external . 

As for the early Vedic or Aryan civilization in the Ganges Valley , it was nomadic and pastoral and relied on livestock raising . At the borders of the year 1000 before Christmas used Aryans iron, and taught agriculture and farming . 

And the emergence of trade has become a society stable and elevated economic and flourished cities of the new, and re - invention of writing in the limits of 700-600 BC . M, and recorded books Vedas which were kept orally for the nearly of a thousand years; and became the countryside and then trade the basis of life and economic in India . 

Indian cultures 

1 - India is the largest culturally and linguistically and historically , and where the presence of geographical, after the continent African . It is home to two platoons of Goatin main two : 

- Indo - Aryan ( which is the remains of language Sanskrit, spoken by about 74% of the population ). 

- Dravidian : It is the remains of the language of the population indigenous to India and the civilization of Sindh, they Aldravedion, and speaks out about 24% of the population . 

2 - If you were ( wisdom ) feature of the attributes of production of intellectual - east, the wisdom of India surpassed the level of the traditional eastern and turned to the philosophy of deep eye for the meanings of the word . If you were wise Egyptian source key from the sources of philosophy Greek, the philosophy of India was the source of the second , which is unfolding its importance day after day . 

3 - After the European colonization of India , profound changes occurred in Indian society , accompanied by cultural changes that affected all aspects of knowledge, including philosophy . Has emerged philosophy Indian modern philosophers senior new, such as : Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, Nejammanda . 

The most prominent qualities characteristic of the philosophy of the Indian, they are : 

1 - the philosophy of early emerged from the womb of the religion of Hinduism was inseparable from religion, but continued to accompany him as face another for the salvation of mental facilities for the salvation of the spiritual . 

2 - the philosophy applied in the field of metaphysics and its problems as much as what is touching details of realism; it is a philosophy of spiritual realism that true expression . 

3 - approaching the nature of the philosophy of Hellenistic and currents that mix between religion and philosophy, and produced colors philosophical to address the problems process . 

4 - The primary character of Indian philosophy is spiritual thought that takes care of spiritual communication with the universe . 

5 - side of the mundane or of life in the philosophy of India is concentrated in the ( ethics ) , which is the Study of essential where, a base composition of the social . 

6 - tendency esoteric philosophy Indian make them interested in life the interior of the human being more of interest in the world outside and material . 

7 - asceticism is the combined primary between the currents of philosophy Hindi, which urged the lack of attachment to something; it is what produces sufficient and then break free ( Muchka ) , then nirvana ( the yard ) , a liberation final of the cycle of incarnation ( Samsara ). 

8 - Indian philosophy is the oldest, longest and most prestigious philosophical heritage produced by man, and it is not permissible to compare it with the Western philosophical heritage because each of them has his own way of understanding man, the world and the spirit .

Science in India 

Science and natural in various fields, and science humanity , which include education , education , law , thought geographical and science policy, and science magic that is best known by the Indians throughout their history . The data important in these types three of Science in India : 

The use of zero in its explicit form is one of the major contributions of Indian mathematics . 

- gave India to mankind the greatest scholars of mathematics in history, such as : Oaabhata, Brahmagupta, Mahavira . 

- innovation differentiation and integration by two centuries of his appearance in the West . 

- The Hindi numbers appeared ( with zero ) simple and clear follow the decimal system , and moved to Iran and the Arabs knew it when they conquered Iran, and moved to the parts of the Ottoman Empire and from there to the West, it was known as ( the Arabic numbers ) and replaced the Roman numbers . 

- is a yoga system of exercises that nourish the body , mind and spirit, which is a tradition of ancient in the foot in religion and philosophy Hindetyn . 

- found the magic of the Indian in all its forms, especially in Hinduism and Buddhism . There is the white magic of useful works , and there is the harmful black magic . But the magic folk common depends mostly on the lightness of the hand and the trick and taming and training of animals, especially snakes . 

- became astrology Hindu modern part of the beliefs popular in India 's modern and contemporary . What is still a lot of people think that the stars and planets impact on the lives of people . 


1 - civilization Vedic oldest civilization Indian authentic, as indicated by their effects discovered in the areas of ( Mohnju Daro ) and ( Hraba ) in the valley of the River Indus . 

2 - Despite the disappearance of the civilization of the River Indus ancient, but the civilization of India continued to hand Aryans who sent the spirit of a new of through religion in particular, where he entered the hymns of the Vedas holy as a new of forms of worship, which went first to the gods that refer to the forces of nature, such as ( Indra the god of war , which symbolizes the thunder ) , and ( Syria god of the sun ) , and ( Varona god of heaven ). 

3 - embraced India birthday ( Buddha ) in the limits of 500 BC . M . Buddhist religion, which is rich in spirit, idealism , democratic order , and hostile to the division of society into classes, has emerged . 

4- Indian drawing or painting is a long standing art , it started with rock art . The inscriptions and drawings that appeared on the caves and shelters rock in Bmbekta since the approximately of 30 thousand years; and represent the caves of Ajanta most important caves and paintings that have withstood generally time . 

5 - gave the religion of Hinduism the importance of great music . In Indian myth , each deity is associated with a specific type of musical instrument . Music was considered a primary source of ancient Indian culture . 

The most important characteristic of Indian civilization historically : - 

1 - The first university in history, which is the University of Taksashila Takshashila Established in the limits of 700 BC . M . ; A University large located in the north - west India . 

2 - Chess is an Indian invention that suggests a deep mathematical understanding . This game has become one of the finest mental games in the world, and it is believed that it originated in India between (550 - 280) BC . M . 

3 - Buddhism religion world originated beginning in India , and then spread in the countries of the Middle Far out of date, and in the world west newly; a religion of non - violence and religion , mysticism and religion to reduce the world 's metaphysical; it is a religion ground not divine, but full of shipment spiritual . 

4 - Indians first of used surgery darkness of the eye ( cataract ) , where he carried a needle curved to make the lens loosen, and then been paid Cataracts for Mangal vision, and then packaging the eye butterscotch warm and bandaging; was this way successful . 

5- In the twentieth century, modern India introduced the C- riscograph device Rescograph, A device to measure the growth of the plants invented Sirijadash Chandrabuss .