Pharaonic civilization - old Egyptian civilization

 Pharaonic civilization - old Egyptian civilization

The ancient Pharaonic civilization was the most prominent and important civilization in the Mediterranean world for nearly 3000 years.

This civilization began in the era of the great pyramids, then came the era of the Old Kingdom and then the period of military conquests in the new kingdom,

Most of the main sources of information about the ancient Pharaonic civilization are many of the monuments and artifacts that have been discovered in archaeological sites, some of which contain hieroglyphic writing

It was decoded later, and the ancient Pharaonic civilization was built along the Nile River,

One of the most prominent reasons for the emergence of this civilization in this particular place is the fertility of the land where the Nile delta is also the availability of water is a strong reason usually in the emergence of all civilizations, and under these circumstances a distinct civilization emerged religiously, urban and cultural, where the pyramids were built and this civilization was known and expanded militarily and economically in the regions Neighboring

Egyptian society was formed from three hierarchical levels: the gods, the king, and the dead.

The king is the most important element of this formation, as he directs the affairs of the parish and regulates the conditions of the country.

The importance of Egyptian civilization

The Pharaonic culture and civilization had a great influence on the regions and civilizations close to it, such as the Nubia region since ancient times

And in Syria also in the third millennium BC, when Egypt used to receive religious sects from all over the Middle East,

While the skillful skills in medicine and magic were greatly appreciated among the peoples of neighboring civilizations, such as the Hittites, Assyrians and Babylonians.

As cultural exchange took place between the Egyptians and the civilization of the Greeks, Egypt was also an influential place for religious and philosophical developments in late antiquity such as Manichaeism, Hermeticism and Neo-Platonism, and some of these religions later became an important part in the intellectual culture of the Renaissance.

The ancient Egyptian civilization consists of several civilizations:

Old kingdom

It was between 2686 and 2181 BC
and this period was known as the era of the pyramids.
The reason for the name is due to the construction of the great pyramids of Giza, which are still fresh today, as well as the Great Sphinx was built in that period, which is most believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre.

Middle Kingdom

It  include the rule of the eleventh and twelfth dynasties. 
and one of its most prominent kings .
Pharaoh Manhetep II, whose most prominent work was Egypt's reunification under his rules after its collapse .
als from his most prominent work was :
political system in Egypt
increase art, jewelry industry and huge construction projects flourished as trade flourished 

The new kingdom

The Kingdom of Heliopolis extended between 1570 and 1544 BC
was  a period of great political and economic prosperity, and the Pharaohs invaded many regions and large areas
 The Pharaoh buried in the burial site of the Egyptian kings, the Valley of the Kings, which became so for more than 500 years.
As for Queen Hephaestus, she was one of the most successful pharaohs in Egypt and her rule lasted for 22 years, and prosperity, strength and Egyptian art reached its peak during the reign of Amenhotep III and also built the Luxor Temples
At the beginning of this period, security and prosperity prevailed in the economy. Reverse the end of this period
In this period the economy deteriorated. And famine spread

The emergence of the Pharaonic civilization:

It is a very ancient Egyptian civilization with an ancient history that spread throughout the world. And it goes back to about (4000) BC. Where it originated in Egypt in the northeastern part of the continent of Africa. And its borders were established over the banks of the Nile River.

This civilization was based on the banks of the Nile Valley, which is considered a symbol of fertility and stability for the peoples of ancient and even modern Egypt. And they wrote their writings on the walls of tombs and temples and wooden panels before they used papyrus, which was popular and widespread since the First Dynasty at the beginning of the third millennium BC.

Its rise coincided with the unification of King Mina of both Upper and Lower Egypt together. Over three millennia, Egypt has experienced a great development

A series of politically stable kingdoms emerged. And periods are relatively unstable. Then the country went into gradual decline. The rule of the pharaohs ceased completely after the fall of Egypt under the rule of the Roman Empire.

History indicates that the Pharaonic civilization is one of the most important civilizations that bequeathed the world, achievements in human history. And it achieved overwhelming success in the Nile River Valley due to the abundance of agricultural ingredients.

Their interest was in agriculture, raising animals, and benefiting from them, and the Egyptians were interested in writing and building great buildings from palaces, temples and statues of the deity that they worshiped. And they left many monuments that still bear witness to the flourishing of their civilization, such as the pyramids and the Sphinx.

Effects of the Pharaonic civilization:

1- The pyramids:

It is one of the greatest monuments of the Pharaonic civilization. It was built in the Giza region (2,500 years ago) and was classified among the Seven Wonders of the World. It was built during the reign of the Fourth Dynasty and they are three pyramids (Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure). These pyramids contain secret passages and burials for the kings of the ancient Egyptian civilization.

2- Label:

It is a temple next to the famous Hawara pyramid, which is one of the pharaonic symbols.

3- Sphinx:

It is a stone statue of a strange and distinctive shape. It was built in the shape of a lion as a sign of strength, and a human head is a sign of wisdom, sophistication and intelligence. It is in the pyramids area of ​​Giza. It was built during the reign of Khafre.

4- Abu Simbel:

It is a temple full of the most beautiful tales of the pharaohs. The drawings and sculptures inside the temple are a strong witness to the Pharaonic civilization and what was happening in terms of events and stories. It is tangible evidence of the beauty of Pharaonic architecture and engineering.

5- Temple of Ramses II:

It was built in the thirteenth century BC. Where he was carved by mountains.

6- Abu Mina City:

It is an ancient Christian city located west of Alexandria and contains the tomb of Saint Marmina, and contains a number of Christian churches, monasteries and archaeological workshops.

7- Tutankhamun statue:

It is one of the most famous statues that reveal the kings of the ancient Egyptian civilization. It is one of six statues made of sandstone and attributed to the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun.

The most famous king of the Pharaonic civilization:

1- King Khafre:
one of the famous Pharaonic civilizations and the owner of the second pyramid, and he belongs to the fourth ruling Pharaonic family that King Khufu witnessed.

2- King Zoser:
He is the owner of the pyramid of Saqqara and one of the kings of the third ruling Pharaonic family.

3- King Tutankhamun.

4- King Akhenaten.

5- King Khenamun of Hatshepsut.

Pharaonic civilization societies:

First class:

Most of the country's population are farmers, and they constitute the largest segment in the country. In spite of this, however, the state takes possession of all agricultural lands and products, and the ownership of the lands can belong to noble families.

Peoples lived under the ancient Egyptian civilization with great injustice and tyranny, as the state imposed a labor tax on farmers only, and employed them in irrigation and construction projects with the forced labor system.

The second layer:

It is the highest category and those who occupy a high position, who are artists and craftsmen, and they were directly under the control of the state. However, they take jobs in state temples. And get their salaries from the state treasury.

The third layer:

It is the upper class in Pharaonic society. They are the writers and the responsible. She was called the white skirt layer, as she wore white clothes to signify their prestigious position.

Achievements of the Pharaonic civilization:

the art:

The pharaohs invented the hieroglyphic writing and its alphabet consists of twenty-four letters, and the Egyptians were distinguished by writing on papyrus. They were famous for their love of music and its use in public and private celebrations, as well as their prayers and burials of the dead. They were also famous for using jewelry, which was characterized by high precision in design.


The Ebers Papyrus contains (87) prescriptions for treating diseases of the heart, eyes, skin, stomach, arteries, and women. The Edwin Papyrus contains information on surgeries, wound injuries and displays (48) medical conditions that begin with their definition, then description of symptoms, then giving a medical opinion, and then the method of treatment.