Top Facts about The ancient Chinese civilization
The ancient Chinese civilization arose in the valleys of the three rivers, namely the Yellow River, called the Chinese (Huang), meaning the Yellow River in China, the Blue River (Yang Qi Kang), and the southern river called (Si Qiang), where it found the remains of the ancient man and dates back to about 400,000 years where he lived on hunting then Agriculture and hunting, archaeologists have found thousands of finds dating back to 8000-6000 BC. These patterns were of people and animals living in the area.
Chinese civilization went through important historical stages:
During the Shang dynasty 2765-1122 BC. China went to the bronze and then to the era of writing.
Their deities in this role were the spirits of natural strength, as they worshiped ancestors.
The second stage begins with the conquest of the tribes that came from western China, which settled in the Yellow River, taking Hao Hao as its capital. They quoted from the civilization of the previous round and ruled between 1122-256 BC. They gave rule to provincial heads, and a type of feudal rule was established in this period, and in the middle of the third century BC. There were many wars between provinces for control, and Chin Province succeeded in uniting the country and gave its name to all of China.
The Chinese believed that their writings were of divine origin, and they are without alphabet. Each word or idea has a special reference, and Chinese literature in this era is called classical literature. The important literature of this era has been collected in a group called (Confucius Books) and these books are:
First: "Books of Changes", which is a book of prediction and astrology, and "Book of History", which is a set of documents, and "Book of Poetry" selected by Confucius, and "Book of Protocols" or rules related to behavior.
Confucius lived between 551-478 BC. He is Kung Fu Tzu, meaning the philosopher or teacher, appointed as governor of Lu Lu province and then became a minister. He was an example of justice and order, then he became a full-time itinerant teacher of education.
And after him, philosophers appeared, including Mo Tzu, who made simplicity and love a path to human happiness and the spread of Confucianism in China Mencius, while Hsun Tzu said that human nature is bad, and that the goodness of man is the result of acquired learning, and the exercise of goodness.
Founded by Lau Tzu, he was a contemporary of Confucius, practicing the behavior known as Tao, and his principle is based on missteps and irrelevance, and the three treasures are: mercy, simplicity, economy and humility.
There were intense debates between Confucianism and Taoism, although the Chinese distilled Laotou and later Confucius, and criticized Confucian Taoism, which forgot the world and nature and centered in man.
Confucianism has become the official religion since the days of Emperor Wuti 140-87 BC. Until the year 1912 AD, when the Chinese Republic was declared.
Unity returned after the chaos of the Mamluks in the era of the Sui dynasty 588-618 AD and the Tang Dynasty 618-906 CE. The policy of the kings of this family was tolerance for the three major religions in China that Buddhism entered at the beginning of the first century AD, and for other religions Islam, Christianity and Judaism ...
Science in Chinese Civilization:
The Chinese civilization had great achievements in the fields of science, industry, medicine, astronomy, and architecture. In the field of science, the Chinese wrote about the eclipse and groups of stars. They also made observations on light and mirrors of their concave, convex, and flat types. They also realized the correct ratio in copper and tin.
As for industry, they invented around 105 AD paper from peel, hemp and rags. Before that they wrote on bamboo and silk, bamboo is heavy and silk is expensive.
The Chinese also invented the potassium nitrate and used it in weapons since the end of the tenth century. When the Arabs took it from them, they said about it, “Snow China”, and the Arabs took it from the Chinese and said about it the powder of salt.
They invented the compass and the typography, where they knew the vowels since 1041 AD, and the chemistry advanced, so they learned black ink and red ink, but in mathematics they solved some unknown equations of the first degree.
As for the architectural field, they took care of rivers and canals, and built the Great Wall of China, which was completed in 214 BC. During the reign of Emperor Shih Huang Ti and renovated at various times. Its height is between 6-10 meters, and its length is 1400 miles.