Babylon ancient civilization. How did the empire rise and how did it fall?

 Babylon ancient civilization. How did the empire rise and how did it fall?

Babylon is one of the first civilization centers in the world, and the most famous of its civilizations are the Sumerians, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, and Chaldeans, which originated in Iraq.

The fall of Babylon is a historical event that occurred in 539 BC, this event witnessed the conquest of Babylon by the Achaemenid Empire under the leadership of Cyrus, and the city of Babylon is located in modern Iraq and dates back to the third millennium BC, when it was a small coastal town on the Euphrates.

Babylon, at that time, was part of the Akkadian Empire, and with the passage of time, the city grew and developed into one of the most important cities in ancient Mesopotamia. During the eighteenth century BC, Babylon became a major power in the region under the rule of King "Hamorabi", Who (ruled from 1792 to 1750 BC) and was the sixth ruler of the first dynasty in Babylon, and during his long reign, he oversaw the great expansion of his empire, as he conquered several countries, an act considered part of a sacred mission to spread civilization in all nations, and by overthrowing the king of Assyria, Babylon is a major power in Mesopotamia.

Hammurabi’s administration was tasked with carrying out massive construction projects, improving agriculture, repairing and rebuilding infrastructure, expanding and raising the city’s walls, and building extravagant temples dedicated to the gods, and his focus was also military, and his main goal was to improve the lives of those who lived under his rule.

At the time of Hammurabi’s death, Babylon was in control of Mesopotamia, and although his successors were unable to maintain this control, this may be due to the lack of an effective bureaucracy, as his active participation in regional wars meant that he did not focus on establishing a regime. My administration ensured the continued operation of his empire after his death, and thus this First Babylonian Empire was short-lived and soon fell under the control of foreigners, including the Hittites, Kassites and Assyrians.

End of the New Assyrian Empire and the birth of New Babylon

After 627 BC, a civil war broke out in the new Assyrian empire, which led to its weakening.Many subjects of the new Assyrian empire took advantage of this opportunity to rebel, one of them was a Chaldean chief by the name of Nabopolassar, who formed an alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians and Samaritans, and this alliance succeeded in Destruction of the New Assyrian Empire.
After gaining independence from the Assyrians, Nabopolassar established the new Babylonian empire, its capital is Babylon, and when he died, he left his son with enormous stores of wealth and a strong city of Babylon. This ruler laid the foundation for the impressive Babylonian Empire, leaving his son Nebuchadnezzar II with ideal conditions to make Babylon in The vanguard of ancient society, and that is exactly what the son did.

The New Babylonian Empire reached its zenith during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, who succeeded Nabopolassar in about 605 BC, and during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, which lasted until about 562 BC, the New Babylonian Empire controlled Babylon, Assyria, parts of Asia Minor, Phenicia and the occupied territories And northern Arabia.

Nebuchadnezzar II is most remembered today, and is generally credited with building two major features of Babylon, the Ishtar Gate in 575 BC and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

How did Babylon fall - Did the base of Nabonidus contribute to the destruction of Babylon?

The kings who succeeded Nebuchadnezzar II were less capable than him and had a short period of reign. In the decade following the death of Nebuchadnezzar II, the new Babylonian Empire had four different rulers, the last of whom was Nabonidus, who ruled from 556 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC.

Nabonidus ruled for 17 years, remembering his restoration of the ancient architectural and cultural traditions in the region, and then earning him the title of "archaeologist" among contemporary historians, however, he was unpopular with his subjects, especially the priests, and it is noteworthy that this ruler was not so attentive. 

What to Babylon: “During the many years of his reign, Nabonidus was absent in the Arabian oasis of Tayma. The reasons for his long absence are still a matter of dispute, with theories ranging from illness to madness, and interest in religious archeology.”

When did Babylon fall?

Meanwhile, the Persians in the East were rising politically in power under the leadership of "Cyrus", and in 549 BC, the Medes were defeated by the Persians, and then they began to invade the lands surrounding Babylon. Finally, in 539 BC, the Persians seized the city of Babylon itself, and the fall of Babylon marked the end of the New Babylonian Empire, and this important event was recorded by a number of ancient historians, despite the contradictions, it is difficult to reconstruct the actual events that occurred.